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Official Rules





The Rules of Dischoops -- Revision 1.3

Copyright, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2015Frank Huguenard

republication of these rules on the internet or elsewhere

without written authorization is

strictly prohibited

Official Rules of Dischoops, First Edition



The purpose of the rules of Dischoops is to provide a guideline describing the way the game is played.


The enjoyment of Dischoops depends on each player's responsibility to set new standards for style, and this responsibility should not be taken lightly.


  1. Introduction
  2. Definitions
  3. Description of Dischoops Court
  4. Equipment
  5. Length of Game
  6. Time Outs
  7. Substitutions
  8. Starting and Restarting Play
  9. In and Out of Bounds
  10. Goal
  11. Scoring
  12. Turnovers
  13. Thrower
  14. Marker
  15. Receiver
  16. Fouls
  17. Free Throws
  18. Positioning

Appendix 1: Official Scoresheet

Appendix 2:Standard Field Diagram

    1. Introduction
      1. Description : Dischoops is a sport played by two, eight-player teams (although only four active players per team are permitted to play at any one time). The object of the game is to win. Any time a pass is incomplete, intercepted, knocked-down, or contacts an Out-of-Bounds area, a turnover occurs, resulting in a change of possession of the disc. A Goal is scored when a player successfully throws a pass that either flies through the arched Hoop to a teammate or is carried by a teammate through the air and through the hoop and into in the End Zone. There are no stoppages of play between scores and a game is divided up into two thirty (30) minute halves; which are each split into two fifteen (15) minute quarters.
      2. Style of the Game : Dischoops relies upon a respect for style that places the responsibility of brilliance on the player. Highly competitive play is always encouraged, but never at the expense of the Style of the Game, which is paramount and includes compliance to the rules as well as treating fellow players with dignity & kindness. Protection of this one vital element serves to eliminate unpleasantness from the Dischoops Court. Unpleasant behavior such as pouting, tantrums, incessant arguing, goofing on opposing players, dangerous aggression, belligerence and high turnover to assist ratios are contrary to the Style of the Game and should be avoided by all self respecting players.
      3. Spirit of the Rules : Dischoops is a competitive venture and there is very little room for the notion of 'Spirit of the Rules'. A requirement of any sport is consistency, measurability and fairness. Participants need to do their best to adhere to the letter of the law, not inferences made based on loose interpretations and urban legends.
      4. Captain's Clause : There is no captain's clause in Dischoops, neither is there an Easter Bunny.


    2. Definitions
      1. Player : A player is any of the 8 individuals from a team actually participating in the game at any one time (four active and four inactive).
      2. Team : Any group of up to 8 individuals that constitute a roster.
      3. Substitution Lines: The four inactive players from each team form a substitution line for that team.
      4. Scorecard : The game results get recorded on a scorecard which is signed by a captain from each team as well as the official scorer. See Appendix I.
      5. Referee: The person(s) who manage the game clock, call traveling, double dribble, foul and out of bounds violations and throw the tip off.
      6. RefCheck: A method by which the Referee puts the disc in play.
      7. Putting the Disc in Play : The disc is put into play in one of two ways:
        1. After a turnover that is in the In-Bounds area on the court, when an offensive player picks up a disc, it is in play.
        2. Side-Out: After an Out-of-Bounds play or a change of possession penalty, putting the disc in play means that a thrower stands from out of bounds and requests and is granted a RefCheck. A that point the disc in in play (live).
      8. Ground Contact: Ground contact refers to all player contact with the ground.
      9. Possession of the disc : Possession of the disc is sustained contact with, and control of, a non-spinning disc.
        1. To catch a pass is equivalent to establishing possession of that pass.
        2. Loss of possession due to ground contact related to a pass reception negates that player’s possession up to that point although ground contact in the goal causing a turnover still results in a score.
        3. The team who's player is in possession, who's player just threw the disc or who's players may pick up the disc is considered the team in possession.
      10. Pivot : A pivot is the particular part of the body in continuous contact with a single spot on the field during a thrower’s possession. When there is a definitive spot for putting the disc in play, the part of the body in contact with that spot is the pivot.
      11. Hoop: The Goal Post is a 32’ section of 3/4" Aluminum shock corded tubing that arches into the air and is anchored with rebar posts, 18 feet apart at the Goal Line
      12. The Goal: the area behind the Hoop where scores occur.
      13. The Goal Line: The Goal Line is the line in which the disc must pass over, going through the Goal Post and being caught by a player who lands with at least one foot in the End Zone.
      14. The Crease: The area just in front of either Goal where it is illegal to play zone defense.
      15. Crease Area: the area consisting of both the Goal and the Crease
      16. Turnover : A turnover is any event resulting in a change of the team in possession.
      17. Attacking Goal: The attacking goal refers to one of the two goals that a team is currently eligible to score in.
      18. Defending Goal: The defending goal refers to one of the two goals that the opposing team is eligible to score in.
      19. Top Of The Key: The location on the Crease boundary furthest from the Hoop.
      20. In The Penalty: A team is In The Penalty when they have exceeded the maximum number of team fouls (4) per half.
      21. Free Throws: A method by which scoring attempts are awarded teams that have been been fouled in the Crease Area (determined by either the pivot foot of the thrower or first point of contact by a receiver) or fouled by a team In the Penalty
      22. Scorecard: A scorecard is maintained on the field by the Referee to record fouls, scores and disqualifications. At the end of each game, the captain for each team signs the scorecard to make the game officially completed.
      23. Misconduct Bench: This seating area is specially assigned for player who have committed infractions that require extraordinary consequences. For red card and yellow card violations, players must sit on the misconduct bench for a mandatory 5 minutes for yellow and 15 for red. It is illegal to smoke or consume any recreational drugs or alcohol while on a mandatory sit down. Violation of this rule carries with it extreme consequences, including but not limited to expulsion from league or tournament play, banishment from club play, etc.
      24. Yellow & Red Cards: It is under the discretion of the Referee to call either Minor (Yellow) or Major (Red) conduct violations for any unpleasant behavior by any active or inactive player. A Minor violation results in an immediate stoppage of play and the player in question must be substituted for the duration of the point with the replacement being selected by the opposing coach. *Spiking the disc in and of itself is NOT considered poor sportsmanship and does not draw an automatic misconduct violation. Two Yellow card violations in a single game results in an immediate Ejection. A Red card violation results in an immediate Ejection as well as and either a Red Card or two Yellow cards on any individual results in the forfeit of the current point by the offending team. A yellow card results in one (1) point awarded to the opposing team and a red card violation is a five (5) point award to the opposing team.
      25. Delay of Game: a player who picks up the disc and/or moves it intentionally while it is the possession of the other team has committed a delay of game. Inadvertently making a call on the field is also a delay of game penalty. The first delay of game is a warning and a side out with subsequent delay of game penalties awarded 0ne (1) point and a side out.
      26. Live Disc: The state where the disc is in play.
      27. Disqualification : A disqualification occurs when a player loses his privilege to play in the game either by surpassing the current maximum acceptable fouls in a game, receiving two Yellow cards or receiving one Red card. When a player is disqualified from the current game, he may not reenter it at any point. To do so would disqualify the entire team.
      28. Offensive player : An offensive player is any player whose team is in possession of the disc or may pick up the disc.
      29. Official Scorer: The designated individual assigned by the tournament director to maintain the scorecard, delineate fouls, yellow and red cards, maintaining the clock, etc.
      30. Defensive player : A defensive player is any player whose team is not in possession of the disc.
        1. A defensive player may not pick up a disc in play.
        2. A defensive player may not call for a pass from the thrower.
      31. Throw: A throw is a disc in flight following any throwing motion, including after a fake attempt, that results in loss of contact between the thrower and the disc.
        1. A pass is the equivalent of a throw.
        2. The act of throwing is the motion of the thrower that transfers momentum from the player to the disc and results in a throw.
      32. Auxiliary Disc: An extra disc for each game that is to be used in the event that an Out of Bounds throw is irretrievable within 5 seconds. If the game disc gets cracked or broken, another disc should be used to replace the game disc and not the auxiliary disc.
      33. Stoppage of play : A stoppage of play is any halting of play due to a call, or time-out.
        1. Play is considered to have stopped when the call or time-out is made
        2. The disc is not subject to a turnover.
        3. The term "play stops" means a stoppage of play occurs.


    3. Description of the Dischoops Court


      1. The standard field of play is a rectangular area with dimensions as shown on the accompanying diagram.
      2. The standard field of play is a rectangular area 30 yards (~27 meters) wide and 50 yards (~47 meters) long with 10 yards (~3 meter) Three point zones on either end.
      3. At the mid point on each two point lines there is a quasi ecliptically area with an 6 yard width and 10 yard length. The half of the qausi-eclipse that lays between the hoop and the other circle is the crease is four yards in length and the half that resides between the hoop and the three point line is the goal and is six yards in length.
      4. A post is inserted into the ground to hold up the hoops at the junction of the goal line and the goal area line. The distance between these posts is 6 yards.
      5. At midfield is a circular midcourt measuring 2 yards in diameter.

    4. Equipment
      1. Any flying disc may be used as long as it is acceptable to both team captains. If the captains cannot agree, the current Official Disc of Dischoops is the Wham-O 82e mold.
      2. Cleats with any dangerous parts are not allowed. This includes metallic baseball cleats, track spikes, and worn or broken studs with sharp edges.
      3. Every player must wear a uniform or other clothing that distinguishes that player from the players on the other team. In tournament play, matching uniforms and numbered jerseys are recommended.

    5. Length of Game
      1. Games are comprised of two 30 minute halves, with each half divided into two quarters.
        1. The Referee is responsible for running the time clock. The clock is halted for stoppages of play that are due to penalties, halftime, timeouts and when the disc goes out of bounds. The clock starts:
          1. When the game or second half is started.
          2. When an offensive player brings the disc to the sideline and requests and is granted a RefCheck.
      2. Halftime occurs when the game clock reaches 30 minutes.
      3. Overtime occurs when the score is tied at the end of regulation time of 60 minutes. Teams flip discs to determine who receives possession first and overtimes last 5 minutes. If the score remains tied at the end of the five minute period, more overtime periods shall be played until a winner is determined (with alternating initial possessions).
    6. Time-Outs
      1. A time-out call stops play and may only be called by the offensive player in possession of the disc.
      2. Team Time-out: A standard game has two time-outs per half.
        1. Each team is permitted exactly one time-out per overtime. This means that any team time-outs remaining from regulation are discarded and each team is awarded a single team time-out.
        2. A player may call a time out in the air, if they are going to land out of bounds, as long as it is called prior to them landing. They may also call a time out if their momentum is carrying them Out-of-Bounds as long as it is prior to ground contact Out-of-Bounds The disc is put into play in this case in the same manner as after a penalty or an Out-of-Bounds disc.
        3. Each team time-out lasts 60 seconds.
        4. Only the offensive player who has established possession of the disc can call a time-out. The player must form a "T" with one hand and the disc and audibly say "time-out". The time-out begins at the moment the first of these actions is performed.
        5. To resume play after a time-out:
          1. All offensive players must establish a stationary position by the end of the time-out.
          2. Any offensive player may restart play with a RefCheck at the nearest sideline to where the timeout was called.
        6. If the team in possession has no has time-outs remaining and a player in possession of the disc signals for a time-out, it is a turnover with the change of possession granted at the nearest Out-of-Bounds with a RefCheck.
      3. Injury Time-out: There are no Injury timeouts although etiquette dictates that if team A has possession of the disc and recognizes that team B has a player seriously injured, it is proper appropriate to throw the disc out of bounds. After team B's player has been attended to and helped off the court, one of B's players initiates play from out of bounds and promptly throws the disc away for a turnover so that team A can resume possession.
      4. Equipment Time-out: An equipment time-out may be called to replace a broken disc or to correct a hazardous or illegal condition.
        1. Any player may briefly extend a stoppage of play (e.g. during a foul or violation stoppage) in order to correct faulty equipment, however, only an offensive player may extend the stoppage for straightening a warped disc. An untied shoe is not considered faulty equipment or a hazardous situation.
        2. Active play may never be stopped for this purpose unless a hazardous situation exists. Note that play has not stopped during a turnover except if the disc is Out-of-Bounds.
        3. Any player recognizing a hazardous or illegal condition may request an equipment time-out from the Referee.
          1. Play stops immediately and there is no continuation. If the disc is in the air, the play is completed and play stops when the team in possession is determined.
          2. Only players on the offensive team may call an equipment time-out to replace a game disc. To do, so the disc must be cracked, torn, deeply gouged, creased, or punctured. Warped, wet, or dirty discs do not qualify for an equipment time-out.
        4. When play restarts after an equipment time-out;
          1. The thrower (any offensive player) restarts play at the nearest Out-of-Bounds spot with a RefCheck with a fresh stall count.
          2. Players may set up when restarting play after an equipment time-out.
        5. A team erroneously calling an equipment time-out will be charged with a team time-out, and a full time out is granted. If that team is in possession and has no team time-outs available, it is a turnover.

    7. Substitutions
      1. Substitutions can only be made during stoppages of play.
      2. Substitutions must originate from the Substitution Box. The outgoing player must enter into the substitution box prior to the incoming player entering play.
    8. Starting and Restarting Play
      1. Start of the game:
        1. The game begins with a tip-off.
        2. A coin (or disc) toss is used to determine initial goal to be defended. Winner of the toss selects goal to defend.
        3. Players from each team line up on the half of the field of the goal that they are defending with one player from each team chosen to battle for the tip-off.
        4. An inactive player or the official scorer then throws the game disc up between the two chosen to battle.
        5. The initial touch of the disc may not be a catch.
        6. If either of the two contestants in the tip-off leave the ground prior to the release of the disc, the tip-off is restarted.
        7. If the disc hits the ground, it is live and the first team to pick it up and gain control has possession.
        8. The initial player to touch the disc may tip it to himself or to a team mate.
        9. The second quarter and all subsequent quarters begins with the team who lost the initial tip-off at the start of the game with possession coming in from mid-court on a side out. The teams will defend the opposite goals that they defended when they start the game.
      2. The RefCheck
        1. When any call or event stops play, a RefCheck is used to restart play.
        2. When the situation is resolved, the player determined to be in possession raises a hand to the Referee to request the check.
          1. The Referee restarts play by raising an arm to signal the restarting of play. If the thrower attempts a pass before the referee initiates play, the pass does not count regardless of whether it is complete or incomplete, and possession reverts to the thrower.
          2. The stall count is reset to zero.

    9. In- and Out-of-bounds
      1. The entire Dischoops Court is In-Bounds. The perimeter lines are not part of the court, and are out-of-bounds.
      2. Any area not In-Bounds is Out-of-Bounds.
      3. Any object or player contacting an Out-of-Bounds area is Out-of-Bounds. An airborne player whose last ground contact was with an Out-of-Bounds area is Out-of-Bounds. All Out-of-Bounds objects and Out-of-Bounds offensive players are considered part of the Out-of-Bounds area. The following exceptions apply:
        1. In the event that momentum carries a player Out-of-Bounds after gaining possession of an In-Bounds disc and landing In-Bounds, the player is considered Out-of-Bounds.
        2. The thrower may not pivot resulting in contact with an Out-of-Bounds area.
        3. Contact between players does not confer the state of being In- or Out-of-Bounds from one onto another.
      4. A disc becomes In-Bounds when it is put into play, or once play is started or restarted.
      5. A disc becomes Out-of-Bounds when it first contacts an Out-of-Bounds area.
      6. The disc may fly outside a perimeter line and return to the playing field, and defensive players may go Out-of-Bounds in order to make a play on the disc.
      7. To continue play when the disc becomes Out-of-Bounds, a member of the team gaining possession of the disc must carry the disc to, and put the disc into play at, the spot on the playing field proper nearest to where the most recent of the following events occurred:
        1. The disc completely crossed the perimeter line.
        2. The disc contacted an in-bounds player.
        3. The disc contacted a defensive player.
        4. The disc became Out-of-Bounds due to contact with an Out-of-Bounds area while the any part of the disc was inside the perimeter line.
      8. Events occurring after the disc becomes Out-of-Bounds do not affect where the disc is put into play.

    10. Goals
      1. There are two goals. They are 30 yards from the opposite Three point line and 20 yards from the opposite goal. They are in the form of a semi-circle that measures 6 yards wide and 6 yards deep. Appendix II.
      2. The Hoops are the entrances to the Goals. They are 6 yards wide and form an arch. The disc can never be thrown or carried through the backside of either Goal or it is a turnover. If this occurs, the disc is returned to the nearest sideline to the goal
      3. If any portion of the disc is laying on the line, the disc may be picked up from in front of the goal and played from there. If the disc is entirely behind the Goal Line, the disc must be played from within the Goal.

      4. The disc must pass through the hoop in order for a catch in the Goal to be considered a Score. The Receiver can jump and catch the disc in the air or reach outside the Goal for the disc and pull it through. As long as the receiver's first ground contact is the Goal and they are not straddling the goal line, it is a Score. If the Receiver’s first contact after catching the disc is the Hoop, there is no score and the play continues. Deflections off the goal are legal. Here is a summary of different scenarios:

        player dribbles through the goal -- turnover
        player pivots into the goal (foot partly on the goal line is ok) -- turnover
        player reaches through the goal with disc (full disc) and then pulls the disc back -- turnover
        player reaches through the goal and then throws a score -- ok
        player catches the disc for a score and then momentum carries player backwards through goal -- turnover
        player catches the disc for a score and while pivoting, reaches the disc backwards through goal -- turnover
        player catches the disc for a score and pivots/straddles but keeps disc on goal side of hoop -- turnover
        player catches the disc straddling the goal line -- turnover
        player catches the disc and lands on goal line with one foot, the other foot in the goal -- turnover (same as straddle)
        player air brushes, tips or bobbles the disc across the goal line -- turnover
        player catches the disc with both feet in the goal but disc never crosses the plane of the hoop -- ok but can't pivot across the line

      5. It is illegal to goal tend. Goal tending means that in order for a player to be loitering in the goal or in the crease, they must be within 3 meters (9' 10") of any offensive player. If the offensive player vacates the area, the defender has 1 second to clear out or to guard another offensive player who may be entering the space. Violation of this rule is considered Illegal Defense and if this defender touches the disc while in the act of Illegal Defense, it is an automatic score for the offense. It is legal to play with one foot in the Goal or Crease and on foot outside of the both the Goal and Crease. If a player *was* illegal but by the time he touches the disc, there is an offensive player within 9'10", then there is no penalty.
      6. The crease mirrors the goal and extends out 4 meters in front of the Goal and curves around to where the Goal's semi-circle ends.
      7. A pass that is thrown for a score with both the thrower's feet from beyond two point line counts for two points.

    11. Scoring
      1. In order to Score, a Thrower must throw a disc that either flies through or is carried through the Hoop as long as the Receiver's first contact after catching the disc is in the Goal and the Receiver is in the Goal with the disc. The goal does not count if the Receiver straddles any part of the Goal line. It is a Goal if the disc hits any part of the Goal Hoop prior to or after the Receiver catching it. If a Defender deflects a pass and it continues though the Goal, and the Receiver in the End Zone catches the disc, it is a Score.

      2. In order for the Receiver to be considered in the Goal after gaining possession of the disc, their first point of contact with the ground must be completely in the End Zone. If the Receiver is in the End Zone and reaches through the back of the Goal to make a catch it is a Score, given that the receiver is able to pull the disc through the Goal prior to taking another step.

      3. A player can not Score by dribbling the disc directly through the Goal and to do so is a turnover (side out).
      4. Should a Receiver's momentum carry them into the End Zone after gaining possession, ot should the player pivot into the End Zone, the result is a turnover (sideout).
      5. After a score, play is continuous. The team that scores maintains possession. The offense may now work the disc back to the Opposite Goal (which is now their attacking Goal) for another score. The disc can not pass (either by flight or momentum) through the back of the Goal or it is a turnover (with the disc being played at the nearest sideline to where the turnover occurred to be played by the opposing team).

      6. If a score is thrown from behind the opposite two point line, two points are awarded.
      7. A thrower may break the plane of the Goal to throw a score. However, if a player breaks the plane of the goal and then brings the disc back through and thereby crosses the plane backwards, it is illegal and a turnover occurs.

      8. A receiver may be standing in the Goal and catch the disc in front of the Goal and pull the disc through or break the line of the Goal to complete a Score.

      9. If a Receiver catches the disc and drops it when the contacting the ground, the Score counts as long as the first point of contact was in the Goal and possession was determined. Possession then reverts to the opposing team.

      10. If the Receiver catches the disc for a score but his momentum carries him over the goal line (through the hoop backwards), the score counts but the play results in a change of possession (side out).

      11. A thrower may throw to himself for a score but in this case, the thrower may not travel through the hoop during the flight of the disc and must therefore travel around it. Additionally, the throw must be released outside of the '*Free Thoe Line', a perimeter line 18 inches outside of the crease. If a thrower does throw to themselves for score, the stall count is reset to zero and the thrower is awarded a fresh dribble.

      12. A pass to one's self from within the free-thoe line or the crease and caught is a turnover and a side out.

      13. It is legal to throw a score on a side-out throw.

      *In honor of Allen Thoe


    12. Turnovers
      1. An incomplete, intercepted, or knocked down pass, or a pass in which the disc becomes Out-of-Bounds, results in a change of the team in possession. If a disc in play is dropped by the thrower without defensive interference, and it contacts the ground before the thrower regains possession, it is considered an incomplete pass.
      2. A disc that is stationary after a turnover and is touched by an offensive player is live. This means that the stall count is initiated as soon as an offensive player touches a stationary disc and also, the defense can pick up a disc once it is live.
      3. A pass is considered intercepted if a defensive player catches a pass.
      4. If a defensive player catches a pass and accidentally loses possession of it before or during ground contact related to that catch, possession then reverts back to the original team on offense.
      5. The following actions result in a change of the team in possession and a stoppage of play:
        1. The Referee's stall count reaches the 5.
        2. The disc is handed from player to player.
        3. The thrower commits a traveling violation.
        4. An offensive player commits a foul.
        5. Yellow or Red Card Violations on Offensive players
        6. If the disc is thrown though the backside of the Goal Post.
        7. Pivoting into the Goal or pivoting Out of Bounds.
        8. Not picking an In-Bounds disc up within 5 seconds after an incompletion
        9. Not putting an Out-of-Bounds disc in play within 10 seconds
        10. A receiver's momentum carries a receiver backwards through a goal or Out-of-Bounds.
        11. The thrower calls a team time-out when none remain.
        12. A player's movement is intentionally assisted by a teammate in catching or blocking a pass. If a defender assists a teammate, the intended receiver retains possession.

    13. The Thrower : The thrower is the offensive player in possession of the disc.
      1. If the disc is on the ground, whether In- or Out-of-Bounds, any member of the team becoming offense may take possession of the disc. The offense must do so within five seconds after the previous turned over disc has come to a complete stop. If the disc ended up Out of Bounds, the offense has 10 seconds to get the disc in play.
        1. If possession is gained at the spot where the disc is to be put into play, the thrower's pivot is established the moment the disc is picked up.
        2. Once an Offensive player has picked up the disc, that player is required to put the disc into play. The stall count is initiated at the moment of possession.
      2. The thrower has the right to pivot in any direction but may not pivot into the goal through the hoop or pivot Out-of-Bounds. However, once the marker has established a legitimate stationary position, the thrower may not pivot into the marker’s body. To do so would be a charging violation.
      3. The thrower may throw the disc in any manner and in any direction, as long as the disc does not go through either Hoop backwards (i.e. towards the center of the court) or through the defending goal frontward's.
      4. Once a thrower has established a pivot foot, it is legal for that player to jump in order throw a pass but if the disc is still in the thrower's possession upon re-contact with the ground, a traveling violation occurs.
      5. A thrower is permitted to throw to themselves.

        1. The Stall count does not get reset between throws.
        2. A thrower may throw to himself for a score but in this case, the thrower may not travel through the hoop during the flight of the disc and must therefore travel around it. If a thrower does throw to themselves for score, the stall count is reset to zero and they are awarded a fresh dribble (i.e. even if they had 'picked up the dribble' previously, they can again throw to themselves).
        3. Once a thrower throws to themselves, if they then hold on to the disc with both hands simultaneously they are then disqualified to throw to themselves again. To do so is considered "double-dribbling" and results in a turnover. The only exception to this is a self score (i.e. a player may 'pick up the dribble' but still legally throw to themselves for a score).
        4. The thrower may not throw to themselves on a side-out throw.


      6. Traveling: While the disc is in the thrower's hands, the thrower must establish a pivot at the appropriate spot on the field and may not change that pivot. Failure to do so is a travel and results in an immediate turnover . The penalty for a travel call is a turnover. The disk shall be put back in play at the nearest sideline with a sideout.
        1. The thrower must keep all or part of the pivot in contact with a single spot on the field. If the thrower loses contact with the appropriate spot, the thrower has traveled.
        2. Whenever a pivot spot is defined in the rules and the thrower fails to establish contact with that spot, the thrower has traveled.
        3. If less than three steps are taken prior to the release of the disc, it is legal for a player to speed up or change direction, but once having done so, has established the current pivot foot the acceleration occurred on as the pivot. Lifting that pivot foot prior to a throw is considered traveling.
        4. If a player obviously takes more steps than are required to stop after catching a pass and before establishing a pivot, that player has traveled. A player is limited to a maximum of three steps to establish a pivot foot.
        5. If an offensive player after receiving a pass on the run, releases a pass after the third ground contact and before coming to a complete stop, that player has traveled.

          a) A complete stop is defined as a discernable and momentary stop in momentum. If a thrower takes three or more steps and is winding up to throw the disc and never halts the throwing motion, the thrower never came to a complete stop and therefore has traveled.


        6. Exceptions:
          1. It is not a travel in the case where the thrower has just received a pass and is throwing before the third ground contact in accordance with XV.D.
          2. Jump passes are legal as long as the thrower has established a pivot.

    14. The Marker: Any defensive player(s) may guard the thrower at any time; that player or players is the marker(s).
      1. The Marker(s) may not straddle, i.e., place their foot on either side of, the pivot foot of the Thrower.
      2. The player who initiates the contact between thrower and marker has committed the foul.
      3. Any defender may touch the disc while it is in the Thrower's possession although they are not allowed to forcibly wrest the disc from the Thrower's hand (to do so is a foul).

      4. The marker may not touch the disc unless it is live (i.e. they cannot touch the disc on a side-out).

      5. Stalling: The thrower is allowed five seconds of possession in order to release a throw.
        1. The stalling gets counted by the Referee beginning with the word three after a period of three seconds of possession has passed.
        2. The count consists of the Referee counting from one to five loudly enough for the other Referee to hear.
          1. All intervals between the beginning of one word and the beginning of the next are to be a minimum of one second.
        3. The opposing team's Players in the Substitution Line have the ability to contest or agree with the stall or whether or not the stall count is too fast.
        4. If the thrower has not released the disc at the first utterance of the word "Five", it is a turnover. The Referee loudly announces "Stall" and play stops with the restart happening at the nearest Out-of-Bounds.
        5. Any time the stall count is interrupted by the call of a time-out, the count restarts at 0.


    15. Receiver : Any offensive player in the act of catching the disc.
      1. Bobbling to gain control of the disc is permitted, and purposeful, controlled bobbling to oneself (i. e., tipping, delaying, guiding, or brushing) in order to advance the disc in any direction is also legal.
      2. No player may intentionally assist a teammate's movement in order to affect a reception or turnover. To do so results in a loss of possession for that team with the disc put back in play at the nearest sideline.
      3. After catching a pass, the receiver is only allowed the fewest number of steps required to come to a stop and establish a pivot and no more than three steps total. (a fourth step may be required and is allowed to achieve balance but the third step would considered the pivot in this case).
      4. If the receiver is running while catching the disc, the receiver may throw a pass before the third ground contact after catching the disc without attempting to stop. However, changing direction or increasing speed while in possession of the disc is a travel except if a point of contact with the ground (pivot) is maintained while the change of direction occurred and the throw is released prior to that pivot being lifted.
      5. If the disc is caught simultaneously by offensive and defensive players, whoever comes down with the disc retains possession.
      6. If a pass arrives in such a manner that it is unclear whether a catch was made before the disc contacted the ground (grass is considered part of the ground), the Referee makes the call.
      7. If a receiver falls down, dives or slides to make a catch (even if on defense), he must throw from that position and may not get up until after the disc is thrown. At a minimum, a player must leave at least one knee touching the ground.
      8. If it is ever unclear whether a receiver was In- or Out-of-Bounds or in the Goal or not, at the point of making a catch, the Referee makes the call.
      9. Force-Out Foul: If an airborne player catches the disc, is contacted by a opposing player before landing, and that contact caused the player in possession to land Out-of-Bounds instead of landing In-Bounds (and realistically being able to stay In-Bounds), the Referee may call a foul on the offending player at the spot of the foul. If this foul occurs in the end zone being attacked, and results in the player landing outside the end zone, and the call is uncontested, a goal is awarded.

      1. Fouls can not be unilaterally called by any one player on the field. However, if one player calls a foul on another, and the other agrees with the call, then play halts and the foul is enforced. Alternatively, if an on-field player makes a foul call and the call is upheld by the player at the head of the opposing team's sub line, the foul is also enforced.
      2. In general, whenever a foul or violation occurs that stops play, if there isn't a Free Throw, players may resume any position prior to restarting the disc with a sideout.
      3. The player initiating contact is guilty of a Foul.
      4. A foul on the offensive team results in an immediate turnover and side-out.
      5. If a dispute arises concerning a foul, violation, or the outcome of a play (e.g., a catch where no one had a good perspective), and the Referee cannot come to a satisfactory resolution, play continues.
      6. Whenever there is an infringement of the rules, play stops. Play restarts with either a free throw or the disc at the nearest sideline from where play stopped.
      7. Strip: There is no such thing as a strip in Dischoops . The disc is considered fair game and any contact between the defender and the disc is legal. It is illegal however, to grab on to the disc while it is in the thrower's hands. If this occurs, it is considered a foul on the violator.
      8. A rolling or sliding disc may be stopped by any player, but advancing it in any direction is considered cause for a delay of game penalty and possible yellow card violation.
      9. If a foul or violation occurs which has no effect on continued play, (e.g., A violation away from the play), play stops, the result of the play stands, and play is restarted from the nearest sideline with a RefCheck.
      10. If offsetting infractions are called on offensive and defensive players on the same play, the disc reverts to the offense from the nearest sideline with a RefCheck.
      11. Picks
        1. Picks are legal as long as no one intentionally fouls during the process.
        2. Moving Picks are illegal. i.e. if a player intentionally moves in such a manner to cause a defender to be obstructed on purpose without being set, then it is a moving foul which is illegal. In order for a pick to be considered legal, if a player intends to purposefully obstruct a defender, he must be set with both feet firmly on the ground and be positioned there long enough to be discernibly stopped.
      12. Fouling Out: When a player commits his fourth foul in one game, he is eliminated from the list of active and available players listed on the scorecard for his team's roster. Play comes to a halt as he will need to be replaced by another player. If a team only has four eligible players in this instance, they must play a player down.
      13. Team Fouls: A team is limited to 4 team fouls per half before entering into the penalty situation. Fouls incurred after a team is 'in the penalty' (5 fouls or more) immediately results in a free throw attempt awarded to the team that was fouled.
      14. Blocking Fouls
        1. A blocking foul occurs when a defensive player's route takes him to a location where inevitable contact occurs between himself and the thrower and this defender is in motion when the contact occurs. In order for a defensive player to not be called for a blocking foul, they must have both feet planted and be in a set stationary position prior to contact with the offensive player.
        2. A player may move in a manner solely to prevent an opponent from taking an unoccupied position via an unoccupied path as long as the player can secure the position prior to the opponent.
        3. Players may take a position that is unavoidable by a moving opponent when time, distance, and line of sight are taken into account as long as there is enough room for the opponent to take three steps before the collision. Contact resulting from a player taking an unavoidable position is a foul on the out of control player (i.e. the difference between a blocking foul and a charge in basketball).
      15. Charging Fouls
        1. A charging foul occurs when an offensive player's route takes him to a location where inevitable contact occurs between himself and the thrower and the defender is stationary when the contact occurs. In order for an offensive player to not be called for a charge, the defensive player involved with the contact must me in motion when the contact occurs. A receiver, upon completion of catching the disk and beyond the third ground contact, who initiates contact with a set defensive player is guilty of a charge.
      16. Receiving Fouls
        1. Receiving Fouls may be called when there is contact between opposing players in the process of attempting a catch, interception, or knock down. A certain amount of incidental contact during or immediately after the catching attempt is often unavoidable and is often not a Foul.
        2. A receiving foul in the crease area is grounds for a free throw awarded.
        3. If a player contacts an opponent before or after the disc arrives, that player has committed a Foul.
        4. Dangerous, aggressive behavior or reckless disregard for the safety of fellow players is a Foul.
      17. Throwing Fouls
        1. A Throwing Foul may be called when there is contact between the Thrower and the Marker and the call may be made on either player.
        2. The marker may hit the disc in an attempt to block the throw while the disc is still in the thrower's hand.. The thrower's hand is considered part of the disc.
        3. Contact occurring during the follow through, which is after the disc has been released, is sufficient grounds for a Foul.
        4. When a Foul is committed by a Thrower or the Marker, play stops. If the foul was on offense, the result is a turnover. In either event, the player who committed the foul must sub out of the game before the disc resumes play from the nearest sideline.
        5. If the Thrower is fouled in the act of throwing a pass, and the pass is completed, the Fouling player is still called for the foul and forced to sub out of the game immediately and the throw reverts back to the nearest sideline from where the foul occurred (unless the foul occurred while the thrower's pivot foot was in the Crease Area in which case a free throw is awarded. If the throw was caught for a score, the score counts.
        6. If an offensive player who's pivot foot is outside the crease area is fouled while successfully scoring, the score counts and that player's team is also awarded possession at the nearest sideline.
        7. Although it should be avoided whenever possible, incidental contact occurring during the follow-through (after the disc has been released) is not sufficient grounds for a foul, unless the contact constitutes harmful endangerment.




  1. Free Throws
  2. Free Throws are awarded if:
    1. An offensive player is fouled in the crease area in their attacking goal (or)
    2. An offensive player is fouled in the act of attempting to throw a goal.
    3. A player on either defense or offense is fouled by a member of a team that is already In The Penalty.
  3. And-1: If an offensive player who is in the crease or attempting to score and is fouled while successfully scoring, the score counts and they are also awarded a free throw.
  4. Any fouls occurring during a free throw can result in further awarded free throws.
  5. When Free Throws are awarded to a team:
    1. The player fouled must place a portion of both feet at the top of the key and must keep at least on pivot foot on the line until a throw is made. The disc is placed at his feet on the ground.
    2. The defensive team selects a goalie from the three remaining players (not including the replacement player for the perpetrator of the foul). The goalie places both heels on the goal line.
    3. The offensive team selects one of their three remaining players to be the receiver and this receiver must put a portion of both feet on the back of the goal line.
    4. All five other players must stand outside of the crease area and on the crease side of the goal line. Upon a RefCheck, the thrower may pick up the disc to initiate the play; both defender and receiver are allowed to begin movement and the thrower then has three seconds in which to make a throw.
    5. If the thrower fails to get off a throw within this time limit, the disc is awarded to the offensive team at the nearest sideline.
      1. This does not count as an official stoppage of play and therefore no substitutions can be made at this time (i.e. the perpetrator of the foul may not re-enter the game at this point).
    6. If the thrower does successfully get off a throw in the allotted time, the disc is then live. After the three seconds is up, any of the remaining five players may also enter the crease area.
  6. After the free throw, play resumes in the normal manor.


  7. Positioning
  1. Every player is entitled to occupy any position on the field not occupied by an opposing player, unless specifically over-ridden elsewhere.
  2. A player who jumped is entitled to land at the same spot without hindrance by opponents. That player may also land at another spot provided the landing spot was not already occupied at the time of take-off and that the direct path between the take-off and landing spot was not already occupied.




Appendix 1: Official Scoresheet













Appendix 2: Standard Field Diagram


Original HTML Version by Frank Huguenard, 4 November 2005.


Latest Rev. 5 July 2015